DW -SS – CH8 Section 2

Question Answer
Became Africa's first and greatest Christian Kingdom around AD 300 Aksum
Tropical Africa is often studied in three sections. What are they? Western, Central, and Eastern
Western portions of Tropical Africa is influenced by ______________________ to the north and _____________________ to the south. desertsea
Savanna's have between ___________________ & _________________rainfall each year 50 inches 80 inches
What is used to make cocoa and chocolate? Seeds of evergreen tree
What is the climate of the central part of Tropical Africa like? hot and wet
How much rainfall does the central part of Tropical Africa get? over 100 inches
Describe the biomes of central Tropical Africa. Forests open up to tropical savanna where rainfall is more seasonal and some areas experience drought.
What does the eastern part of Tropical Africa look like? rhinoceros horn
What is the eastern part of Tropical Africa named because of how it looks? Horn of Africa
Why is the Horn considered to be in a good location? It has oil supplies near Middle East and shipping lanes between the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea
The World's Second Largest freshwater lake Lake Victoria (after Lake Superior)
The major source of the Nile River was named by _________________ after the queen David Livingstone
Longest and second-deepest freshwater lake in the world named by David Livingston Lake Tanganyika
What covers most of Eastern Africa? Tropical Savanna
What was the Democratic Republic of Congo once known as? Belgian Congo and Zaire
What is the Democratic Republic of Congo covered by? dense rain forests
The world's second-largest river. Congo
American explorer that served for and found David Livingston and found the source of the Congo River Henry M. Stanley
The king of Belgium governed the Congo Free State as a personal domain until ________________ when the region became an official colony called _____________________. 1908Belgian Congo
Who started a dictatorship in 1965? General Joseph Mobutu
Almost all tribes speak their own dialect, but they communicate with each other in ___________________ , the official language French
Short descendants of the original inhabitants, still roam the forests, living almost entirely by hunting wild animals and gathering wild plants pygmies
The capital and largest city of the Congo Kinshasa
Where do people in Kinshasa work? on small farms, on plantations, or in mines
____________________________ has the potential to be one of Africa's richest countries. Democratic Republic of Congress
___________________________ was never a European colony. Ethiopia
Ethiopia has is a symbol of _________________________ for Africa. Independence
Became the first bishop of Ethiopian Orthodox Church Frumentius
In 1930 ________________________ began a program of modernization in Ethiopia to increase the prosperity and security of his people. Emperor Haile Selassie I
The capital and largest city of Ethiopia Addias Ababa
Lake Victoria, the world's second largest freshwater lake and major source of the Nile River lies in the southwest corner of the what country? Kenya
This railroad town became a modern city as the capital of the colony and later of the country of Kenya Nairobi
A Kikuyu leader of fighting became Kenya's first president. Jomo Kenyatta
What is Tanzania most famous for? savanna wildlife
Tanzania's capital Dar en Salaam
What does Dar en Salaam have many of? cultures and languages
World's second largest freshwater lake and major source of the Nile River Lake Victoria


Term Definition
Constant Phonation Focus is kept on keeping the voice turned on for the duration of a phrase or sentence.
Preparatory sets This occurs before a stutter actually occurs. The person who stutters anticipates that they will have difficulty with an upcoming sound or word and produce that word in an easier, more controlled manner
Light articulatory contact Sounds are produced in an easy manner with the least amount of pressure or tension
cancellation "Giving yourself a redo". After stuttering on a particular word, you stop and try to say the word again more fluently, in a more controlled manner
pull-out when using this technique you stop in the middle of the stutter and say the sound again in an easier manner. You do not try to push through the stutter, instead you ease out of it.
Pseudostuttering Intentional stuttering. It is designed for the purpose of desensitization.
Reduced Rate of Speech The normal rate of speech is slowed down. By doing this, proper breathing and relaxed speech muscles are more likely.
Easy Onsets When using this technique you exhale slightly while producing the first sound of the word you are saying.
Pausing Grouping words together and adding pauses where they would naturally occur
Full Breathg Breathe in through the mouth and relax your throat and face before you speak.
Stetchy Speech stretch out the beginning sound slightly to ease into speaking

Baking Test for baking/pastry final

Question Answer
What the creaming method a mixing method is which softened fat and sugar are vigorously combined to incorporate air
What is the bisquit method The bisquit method it involves cutting cold fat into flour before liquid is added
How are they different – creaming and bisquit method? the bisquit method you add cold fat to flour, the creaming method, you add fat to sugar
What are the two chemical leavening units Baking powder and baking soda
What temperature does yeast bread die 140 degrees
What team should your water be for yeast 85-95 degrees
why are quick breads considered quick breads Because you just mix and bake – no fermentation
What is the straight dough method yeast water and everything else
What is the sponge dough method all water, all yeast, partial flour
Yeast bread get straight dough method, what are the 4 yeast breads we made Italian, French, Cuban and Pizza
Why are they considered lean breads Low fat
What fat content do we use Fat, butter and eggs
Modified Straight 2 attachments/ Paddle then hook- the paddle softens the butter and the flour for the hook
What are the 2 consistencies that we use when making pie dough baked crust and par bake (par bake is when you bake the crust for 15 mins. first.
What are the 2 different pie crusts Flaky & mealy
Laminated dough Puff pastry- before we layer the dough with fat
Puff pastry does not have to because – why? Because it does nothave yeast
What method do we use when making cookies The creaming method – using the paddle to reduce the graininess of the sugar
What are the 3 tools we use on the mixer the paddle, hook and whisk
What does folding mean get everything from bottle to retain the air
Genoise sponge cake – use whisk attachment to incorporate air – egg & sugar cooked on stove until temp. reach 110 degrees, then use whisk to mixture until it rise to the top, then fold flour in in 3 parts to retain air.
Chocolate & spice cake we used creaming method What did we do some dry,some wet,some dry, some wet
What are the two oven we used European Deck oven that uses electricity and a stack oven used for pizza that is a gas over
How do you change the speed on the mixer Turn off the mixer and change it
What are the 3 types of scales Baker's scale, Balance scale and twin platform scale
What are the instruments we use with the scale the scoop, the counter balance and the counter weight
What does the scoop do for the twin platform scale It zero outs the scale
Why are you using a wooden spoon and the figure 8 motion instead of the whisk So that it deosn not create foam to the top
What are the proof box knob for It heats the water and control the humdity or temperature of the box
What are the 3 parts of wheat Brand, germ and endosperm
What is the class uniform slip resistant shoes, chef pants, chef coat, nakerchief, apron, chef hat
Tempering means to cook eggs false
What is tempering Heating gently and gradually, refers to the process of slowly adding a hot liquid to eggs or other foods to raise their temperature without causing them to curdle
Butter creams cream cheese hwich is considered an american style because we don't cook the eggs, but the european style cook the egg
Pate A Choux cream puffs and eclair- water & butter- boiled, incorporate flour and salt/ make a roux and cook out the flour
1 tablespoon 3 teaspoons
1 teaspoon 1/3 tablespoon
3 teaspoons 1 tablespoon
1 fluid ounce 2 tablespoon
1 tablespoon 1/2 fluid ounce

Dict mean "say,tell,speak"

Question Answer
Dictator A person who tells others what to do
Prediction To say or tell what will happen before it does
Edict A spoken announcement that has gone "out"
Verdict final say of truth by a judge or jury
Contradict to speak against someone or something
Benediction a spoken prayer or blessing of good wishes
Dictate To tell someone what to write or do
Jurisdiction When a judge tells where laws are enforced
Diction To say words correctly
Dictionary A book that "tells" what words say or mean

baking midterm

Question Answer
What is fermentation when sugar is turned to alcohol and co2
What is glutten rubbery substance created when wheat and flour are mixed with water.
how much glutten does cake flour have 6-8
what is the point of adding eggs? tenderizer
What 2 things are made fm cocoa beans cocoa butter and cocoa powder
What temperature does egg coagulate? 149-158
sugar does what to yeast feeds it
salt does what to yeast kills it
milk does what in baking tenderizes and moisturizes
why do you let dough rest to relax the glutten
flour adds what to a mixture structure, absorbs moisture and provides glutten
what does simple syrup do to fruit keeps them longer and gives them a protective covering
10 steps for bread 1. scaling2. mixing and kneading3. fermenting4.punching5.portiioning6.roundingshapingproofingbakingcooling & storing
name to types of sucrose sugars granulated, powdered, brown suguar,
How much glutten is in pastry flour 7 – 9.5
How much glutten is in All purpose flour 9.5 – 12
Howmuch glutten is in Bread flour 11.5 -14
How much glutten is in Whole Wheat flour 13-14
How much glutten is in High glutten flour 13.5 – 14.5
what is molasses the liquid by product of sugar refining
how many types of thickeners are there? two starches and geletins
name the types of starches cornstarch, arrowroot and tapioca
name the types of gelatin gelatin, granualted, sheet or leaf
What is geletin made from animal
what are starches made from plants
why is any fat shortening in baking? because it shortens gluten strands ad tenderizes the product
emulsions flavoring oils mixed into water with the help of an emulsifier
Extracts flavoring oils or essential oils mixed with alcohol
creaming vigously combining fat and sugar while incorporating air
types of sugars granulated, brown, superfine, powdered
liquid sweetners corn syrup, honey,maple syrup, molasses
what liquid sweetner is hygroscopic corn syrup
hygroscopic attracts water from the air
whole egg and water wash sshine and color
whole egg and milk shine and color with soft crust
egg white and water shine and firm crust
water crisp crust
pastry cream steps 1. boil milk and 3 oz of sugar.2. whxk egg yoks in bow and grad add sugartemper egg yolks with 1/4 of milk. put the egg mix into the milk whisk vigously til thick about 1 min4. pour into clean bowl5. fold in butter6plactic wrap surface, ice bat
what temperature does yeast die 120 degrees
What is the difference between soft and hard meringue the amount of sugar
pate a choux preheat oven 425.boil milk,sugar,butter and salt. take off h3t add flour. vig beat put back on h3t should look dry & comes away fm the sides of the pan. add eggs one at a time dough should pull away fm the sides in thick threads. put in a p8st3 bag & pipe
whatis docking when you put tiny holes in the pie with a fork so that the crust doesn't rise because of the steam
what is the difference between mealy and flaky dough mealy dough resists sogginess better than flaky dough and sturdier than flaky dough
What kills yeast salt ad temperature
What color should your butter be when creaming b4 you add the sugar a light yellow
Why do you knead dough to develop glutten
temp and tim for baking meringue 5hrs @ 200 degrees
What happens if you have fat in the Merringue Fat won't let it rise
Why do you put cream of tartar in Meringue To keep it white and shiny
To incorporate air you must whip air in your what saborone
What is the difference between a stirred and baked custard Bake cream brulestirred savione
Name 5 things made fm a custard base ice cream, savionge, pastry cream, cheesecake,cream brule,
why do we sift mixes thoroughly, incorporates air, even distro of infredients
how do you know when rolls are properly baked hollow sound and consistency
what is crumb of the bread inside texure after it is baked
What does it mean to laminate dough to seal in fat between the layers
How many times do you turn croisants 4 and you mark the dough in the corner
What does egg wash do on the sweet crust seals the dough
What is the use of flour in bake goods provides structure
Fat provides what moisture, flavor, tenderizer
what does yeast eat sugar
how is powdered sugar made finely ground granulated sugar plus 3% corn starch
What temp does yeast die 120 degrees
What product will give baked goods a sheen egg wash
How thich should meringe bo on a top of a pie

force and motion

Term Definition
Acceleration equals the change in velocity divided by the time for the change to take place ; occurs when an object speeds up, slows down, or turns.
momentum a measure of how difficult it is to stop a moving object ; equals the product of mass and velocity
speed equals the distance traveled divided by the time it takes to travel that distance
velocity speed and direction of a moving object
newton's first law of motion states that if the net force acting on an object is zero, the object will remainat rest or motion in a straight line with a constant speed.
newton's second law of motion states that an object acted upon by a net force will accelerate in the direction of the force and that acceleration equals the net force divided by the objects mass
newton's third law of motion states that force always act in equal but opposite pairs
balanced forces two or more forces whose effects cancel each other out and do not change the motion of an object
friction force that acts to oppose sliding between two forces that are touching
unbalanced forces two or more forces acting on an object that do not cancel , and cause the object to accelerate

wordly wise 4 study words

Term Definition
accurate able to give a correct reading or measurment
approximate not exact but close enough to be reasonably correct
course the path over which something moves
depart to leave, to go away from a place
despair to lose hope
destination the place to is something or someone is going
deteriorate to make or become worse
gale a very strong wind
horizon the apparent line in the distance where the sky meets the sea or land
jubilation very happy
navigate to calculate or direct the movement of a ship or aircraft
nostalgia a longing for a certain time in the past
revive to make or become strong again
sever to break off
voyage a long journey by sea or in space

Baking II Covering a test over pate a choux and sugar

Question Answer
What does Pate Choux mean? Cabbage pastry
What is the panada stage? Where the pate choux coats the bottom of the pan thinly, and the edges cook to a golden brown.
At what temp do you add eggs into the panada mixture? 138 F
What is the formula for pate choux? FFEW (fat,flour,eggs,water) 2345 (2 oz fat,3 oz flour,4 oz eggs,5 oz water)
What are 2 sources of sugar in the US?? sugar cane and sugar beets
What is the Arabic word for sugar? What does it mean? Karkara, meaning gravel or small bits of material
3 classifications of sugar? mono-saccharide, di-saccharide, and poly-saccharide
What is a mono-saccharide made of? one sugar, (dextrose, glucose, laevulose, of fructose)
What is a di-saccharide made of? 2 sugars (sucrose, maltose, lactose)
What is a poly-saccharide made of? many sugars, or three or more.
What is treacle? Dark, heavy, concentrated molasses. Rich in color and flavor
What are the 8 functions of sugar? THIS LNCC (Traps moisture, hygroscopic, icing body, sweetness, leavening, caramelizes, creaming)
What are the stages of sugar? (TSFHSH) Thread ball, soft ball, firm ball, hard ball, soft crack, hard crack
What temp is thread ball? 230-235
What temp is soft ball? 235-240
What temp is firm ball? 245-250
What temp is hard ball? 250-265
What temp is soft crack? 270-290
What temp is hard crack? 300-310
What are the three stages of caramelization? clear liquid, brown liquid, and burnt sugar
What restaurant does Gale Gand work for? Where is it? Tru in Chicago
What is the product that is similar to phyllo dough that Gale used in her demo? pate bric
Who did Gale work with on a chapter of a baking cookbook all about phyllo dough? Julia Childs
How long does it take a vanilla bean to mature? 9 months

Food Science Test 3- Baking ingredients

Question Answer
What does wheat flour do for baked goods? It provides structure to baked goods by producing gluten
What are the two components of wheat flour that form gluten? 1. gliaden (sticky)2. glutenin (elastic)
What is required for gluten production? wheat flour, water and manipulation (stirring, beating, kneading, etc).
what do eggs provide in baking? structureemulsificationleaveningliquidflavorcolornutrients
what does sweeteners provide in cooking? provides sweetness, tenderizes, incorporates air when creamed with solid fat.
what are different types of sweeteners used in baking? sucrose – table sugar, brown sugar, honey, syrups, molasses
what does fats provide in baking? 1. tenderizes2. provides flavor (depending on type of fat)3. adds crispy texture4. solid fats work with sugar in the creaming process to incorporate air
what does salt do in baking? 1. enhances flavor2. helps to regulate the growth of yeast
What does water do in baking? 1. needed for gelatinization of starch2. needed for gluten developement3. acts as a solvent4. provides steam and moisture
What do leavening agents do in baked products? causes baked products to rise
what are the different leavening agents? 1. air 2. steam3. carbon dioxide
what are the leavening agents made up of carbon dioxide? Chemical sources and biological sources… Chemical sources – 1. baking soda 2. baking powderBiological sources – yeast
wheh would you use baking soda vs baking powder baking soda can be used when baking an acid product
What are different examples of how air is used in baking? 1. egg foams2. creaming of solid fat and sugar
what are the different egg foams and which produces the most air? 1. whole eggs2. egg yolks3. egg whites (produces the most air)
How does staem affect baking? the amount of steam depends on the ratio of water to flour
what are examples of baked goods leavened by steam? popovers, yorkshire pudding, puff pastry, pie pastry
what is the chemical name for baking soda? sodium bicarbonate
how does baking soda work? it will produce CO2 when water is introduced in the presence of an acid. heat is not required.
what are examples of acid ingredients? sour cream, buttermilk, vinegar, citrus juices, fruit juices, brown sugar, molasses, chocolate, and honey.
what makes up baking powder? baking soda, acid, inert ingredient
how does baking powder work? produces CO2 when water is added at room temperature
how does double acting baking powder work? also produces CO2 when water is added at room temperature and again when it is heated.
what is a yeast? the biological source of CO2
This is when yeast feed off glucose in the presence of enzymes to produce CO2 and ethyl alcohols Fermentation
What are requirements of fermentation? 1. warm temperature 81-1002. glucose
what temperature will kill yeast? temperatures over 140
how does glucose work in fermentation? enzymes in flour and yeast will breakdown the starches to glucose units
what are the market forms of yeast? 1. active dry yeast2. quick acting yeast3. compressed or fresh yeast
what is active dry yeast? requires re-hyrdating to activate the yeast, water should be between 100-115
what is quick acting yeast rehydrating is not necessary!
what is a characteristic of compressed or fresh yeast? they have a short shelf life
what are mixing techniques in baking? stir, beat, whip, fold, cream, cutting in, knead

Anatomy Ch. 4

Question Answer
What are the locations of Simple Squamous? Excretory, Respiratory, Cardiovascular
What are the functions of Simple Squamous? Filtration, Secretes, Diffusion
What are the locations of Simple Cuboidal? Excretory, Reproductive
What are the functions of Simple Cuboidal Secretes, Absorbs
What are the locations of Simple Columnar? Digestive
What are the functions of Simple Columnar? Absorption, Secretes
What are the locations of Ciliated Simple Columnar? Respiratory, Reproductive
What are the functions of Ciliated Simple Columnar? Propels
What are the locations of Pseudostratified Columnar? Reproductive
What are the functions Pseudostratified Columnar? Secretes
What are the locations Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar? Digestive, Reproductive, Integumentary
What are the functions Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar? Propels
What are the locations of Transitional? Excretory
What are the functions of Transitional? Stretches
What are the locations of Adipose? Integumentary
What are the functions of Adipose? Insulates, Supports, Protects, Stores
What are the locations of Dense Regular? Skeletal, Muscular
What are the functions of Dense Regular? Attaches, Provides Strength
What are the locations of Dense Irregular? Integumentary, Digestive, Skeletal
What are the functions of Dense Irregular? Tension, Provides Strength
What are the locations of Hyaline? Skeletal , Integumentary, Respiratory
What are the functions of Hyaline? Support, Reinforce, Cushion
What are the locations of Elastic? Integumentary, Digestive
What are the functions of Elastic? Flexibility, Provides Shape
What are the locations of Fibrocartilage? Skeletal
What are the functions of Fibrocartilage? Strength, Allows compression
What are the locations of Osseous? Skeletal
What are the functions of Osseous? Supports, Protects, Stores
What are the locations of Blood? Cardiovascular
What are the functions of Blood? Transport
Where can you find Nerve Tissue? Nervous
What are the functions of Nerve Tissue? Transmits
Where can you find Skeletal Muscle? Muscular
What are the functions of Skeletal Muscle? Movement
Where can you find Smooth Muscle? Digestive
What are the functions of Smooth Muscle? Propels
Where can you find Cardiac Muscle? Cardiovascular
What are the functions of Cardiac Muscle? Contracts, Propels