Texas History–OIL Cotton, cattle, railroads, and age of oil

Texas History–OIL Cotton, cattle, railroads, and age of oil

Question Answer
effects of westward expansion –Indian attacks–Salt Creek Raid, Mackenzie's Raid, The Battle of Adobe Walls, Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
effects of westward expansion on NATIVE AMERICANS –The Dawes Act–military attacks–slaughter of buffalo–killed or moved out of state
Who is Lawrence Sullivan ROSS? –also known as Sul Ross–A Texas RANGER and Confederate General–later served in TX State Senate and Gov of Texas
Who is Quanah Parker? –member of COMANCHE tribe- fought Col. Mackenzie to not go to reservation–not wanting his people to die more, he moved to the reservation anyway–he worked to better relations between the fed govt and am indians–friends with President Roosevelt
How did Texas benefit from the BUFFALO SOLDIERS? –African American troops protected all of Texas
How did BARBED WIRE help the cattle industry? –kept cattle off the fences without harming animals
How did BARBED WIRE HURT the cattle industry? –people were fencing the open range (water sources, roads) and lead to RANGE WARS
What technology made CATTLE DRIVES profitable? $$ -railroads faster transportation
What technology helped to develop Texas? -railroads faster transportation-dry farming: terracing, used in dry climate to keep moisture in soil-threshers: machines that separate grain/seeds from plants-John Deere deep steel plow: helped farmers break through the soilwindmills-pumped water
Significance of year 1900? Galveston HURRICANE
How was Galveston hurt by the hurricane? –hurt economy because of important PORT–destroyed the whole island
Impacts of the Galveston Hurricane? –Houston grew in population.–Galveston built a seawall and raised level of island–changed form of government to a commision form of government
Significance of year 1901? –They hit the huge OIL STRIKE known as SPINDLETOP!!!$$
What happened during BOOM cycle of Spindletop? –hundreds of oil companies formed–created many jobs–population of beaumont increased by 40,000 people–1902–spindletop peaked more than 17 million barrels of oil
What happened during the BUST cycle of Spindletop? –supply of oil outpaced demand–1902–all time low price of 3 cents a barrel–1904–produced 10,000 barrels of oil a day–most companies that formed went out of business
What is a BOOM TOWN? –oil rigs typically located close to homes in the middle of everything–brought in $$ and industry—infrastructure couldn't support the boom in poulation–workers lived in tents/shacks
Life in a BOOM TOWN… –very crowded-no potable drinking water–very dirty–
WILDCATTERS –independent oil operators who search for new fields–competed with each other to find salt domes like spindletop
TEAMSTERS –people who haul goods to and from the oil fields–former farmers looking fo rwork–african amer/mex amer
What caused the demand for OIL to DECREASE? –electricity
What new used for oil allowed oil company to continue to succeed? –automobile–gas for cards–petrochemicals–synthetic rubber, plastics, carbon black used to make tires, ink
What is NATURAL GAS and how was it able to compete with OIL industry? –gas that can be used as fuel, this increased demand t
How does the OIL industry affect Texas economy? –both industries have grown in number of fields and probably in economic importance regionally and in texas
TEXAS RAILROAD COMMISSION –set standards for spacing between wells and for pipeline transportation of oil and gas (political)
SOCIAL effects of OIL industry on Texas? –most drilling and production jobs were reserved for white workers, teamsters (african/mex amer), many oil workers lived a very mobile life (moving from town to town to follow new oil strikes)
ECONOMIC effects of OIL industry on Texas? 1905-collected $101,000 in taxes from oil industry 1919–taxes collected on oil industry rose to $1 million, taxes helped fund state/educ. programs, universities reveived money from Permanent University FUnd, oil producers gave $ to public institutions
POLITICAL effects of OIL industry on Texas? 1899–TX legislature passed laws concerning abandoned wells and protection of ground water from air pollution, legislature made it illegal to waste oil and natural gas, these ruled helped over-drilling
Uses for TAXES collected from OIL industry –helped fund state government, education programs for TX children

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