Outcome 2 HBSF

Outcome 2 HBSF

Question Answer
Striated Muscle? Cardiac MuscleSmooth Muscle
Non-striated Muscle? Smooth Muscle
Electrical Excitability A property of both muscle cells and neurons is the ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing chemical signals e.g. action potential.
Contractility The ability of muscle tissue to contract forcefully when stimulated by an action potential.
Extensibility The ability of muscle tissue to stretch without being damaged.
Elasticity The ability of the muscle tissue to return to its original length and shape after contraction or extension
Muscle Fibre Each skeletal muscle is an organ that is composed of hundreds of thousands of cells; these cells are known as fibres.
Fascia The connective tissue that surrounds and protects
Epimysium A connective tissue that surrounds the whole muscle
Endomysium The connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibres.
Perimysium The connective tissue that surrounds a group of muscle fibres
Tendon A cord of dense regular connective tissue that connects the muscle to the bone.
Fascicle A small bundle or cluster of muscle cells.
Sarcolemma The fibres plasma membrane.
Sarcoplasm The cytoplasm of a muslce fibre (within the sarcolemma)
T tubules Thousands of tiny invaginations of the sarcolemma tunnel from the surface in towards the center of each muscle fibre.
Sarcoplasmic reticulum A fluid filled system of membranous sacs which encircles each myofibril.
Myofibrils Looks like lots of little thread like structures stuffed in the sarcoplasm at high magnification.
Sacromeres Basically the functional unit of the myofibril.
Z Disc Narrow, plate-shaped regions of dense material that separate one sarcomere from another.
M line The centre of a sarcomere
Myosin Functions as a motor protein. Myosin molecules make up the thick filaments. Myosin-shaped like two wound round golf clubs.
Actin Is the major component of thin filaments. On each actin molecule is a myosin binding site, where the head of the myosin molecule can attach.
Troponin Holds the tropomyosin strand in place.
Tropomyosin Covers the myosin binding site on the actin.
Motor neurons Neurons that stimulate skeletal muscle fibres to contract
Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) The synapse between a motor neuron and muscle fibre.
Synapse A region where communication occurs between two neurons or between a neuron and a target cell.
Neurotransmitter A chemical released by one cell as a means to communicate with another cell.
Synaptic End Bulb What the motor neuron axon terminal divides into at the neuromuscular junction.
Synaptic vesicles Membrane enclosed sacs suspended in the cystol within each bulb.
Exocytosis Present on the membrane of the motor end plate which binds the neurotransmitter.
Acetylcholine (ACh) The neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction.
Motor end plate The region of the sarcolemma of the muscle fibre that is adjacent to the synaptic end bulb.
Acetylcholine receptors Present on the membrane of the motor end plate which binds the neurotransmitter.
Sliding filament theory In the presence of Ca2+ and ATP, the skeletal muscle shortens because the thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments slide past each other.
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE)

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