NuCh 1,2,12,13,14,15 Nutrition Midterm

NuCh 1,2,12,13,14,15 Nutrition Midterm

Question Answer
this is the study of the relationship to humans and food nutrition
state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, not just absence of disease or infirmity. health
the chemical substances supplied by food that hte body needs for growth, maintenance, and repair. nutrients
What are 6 classes of nutrients? carbsfatsproteinsmineralsvitaminswater
a nutrient is called _____ if the human body requires it and cant manufacture it in sufficient amts to meet body needs. essential
3 essential vitamins are.. vitamin A, C, & Calcium
nutrients not needed in the diet because the body can make them are called nonessential
under most circumstances a healthy body can manufacture enough of _________ nutrients to ; in certain sutations the body can't. conditionally
What is an example of conditionally essential nutrients? arginine
the sum of all physical and chemical changes that takes place in the body metabolism
is defined int eh physical sciences as the capacity to do work. energy
food enters the body as.. ______ energy chemical
What are the energy nutrients? carbsfatsproteinsnutrients
food in animal sources zoochemicals
food in plant sources phytochemicals
Foods that contain zoochemicals and phytochemicals are sometimes called… functional foods
are bacteria found in food that reduce the duration of acute diarrhea in children. probiotics
Women's bodies normally contain more _____and less ______ than men's bodies.a. carbohydrate, proteinb. fat, protein,c. protein, ashd. water, fat b. fat, protein
Malnutrition occurs as a result of or part of: a. the aging processb. a low incomec. infirmityd. overnutrition d
which of the following is not one of the traditional groups of nutrients?a. zoochemicalsb. vitaminsc. mineralsd. proteins a. zoochemicals
An example of an energy nutrient is: a. waterb. fatc. vitaminsd. minerals b
The health-care team member who specializes in swallowing disorders is a:a. registered nurseb. physicianc. speech therapistd. medical assistant c. speech therapist
Why is the body fat percentage of a women and a man? women is 18-22%man is 15-19%
What are the steps of the nutritional care process? assessment diagnosis or analysisplanningimplementationevaluation
this describes what a client has been eating. dietary status
measurement that helps differentiate between a person who is heavy because of muscle mass and one is heavy because of excess fat triceps skinfold
measurement obtained and can be used to monitor progress. midarm circumerfence
body frame is if the digits overlap by 1 cm or more small
is if the thumb and middle finger touch medium
is if the gab between digits is 1 cm or more large
provides information when an indibvidual is accumulating fluid in the abdominal cavity abdominal circumference
when taking waist hip measures measure the waist where.. and the hips were where it narrowswhere it's greatest
compares the person's scale weight with his or her weight underwater. underwater weighing
two x-ray beams are passed through the body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
how do we measure bone loss in osteopenia, osteoporosis ultrasound bone densitometer
test with electrodes on the extremities that are stimulated…the greater the electrolyte content and conductivity of hte body's _____________ is compared with that of _____________. bioelectrical impedance testfat-free mass… fat or bone
body electrical impedence measures… body water, lean body mass, body fat
biolectrical impedence may be skewed in who? diuretics, excessive sweating, hemodialysis, pre-menstrual edema, and alcohol consumption w/in 24 hrs`
Even though BMI has been used as an indicatory of obesity, it fails to distinguish.. adipose tissue from muscle or water weight
What BMI is underseight? <18
What BMI is normal? 19-24
What BMI is overweight? 25-29
What BMI is Obese? 30-39
What BMI is morbidly obese? <40
Waist circumferences of more than ___ inches in men and ___ inches in women is related to increased risk of cardiovascular dz. 40, 35
Waist hip ratio great than ___ in women and ___ in men indicates problems related to obesity? 0.80.95
composed of 5 nutrient-based reference values use for assessing and planning diets for groups according to life-stage and gender. They are intended for healthy general population and refer to average daily intakes of one or more weeks. dietary reference intakes DRI
intake that meats the estimated nutrient needs of 50% of the individuals in the defined group. used to assess or plan the intake of groups. estimated average requirements (EAR)
intended for use as a goal for daily intake by individuals, not for assessing adequacy of an individuals nutrient intake. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)
average observed or experimentally determined intake that appears sufficient to meet individuals in the stated group. Used if other methods lack information. Adequate Intake (AI)
percentage of kcal from CHO, fat, and protein associated with reduced risk of chronic dz while providing sufficient protein Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
highest average daily intake by and individual that is unlikely to pose risks of AE . intake from food, fortified food, water, supplements Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)
What is the fxn of exchange lists? to provide food choices that necessitate minimal calculation and control the distribution of nutrients throughout the day
List the starch exchange of the following..puffed cerealbreadcornrice cereal 1 and 1/2 cbread 1 slicecorn 1/2 crice 1/3 c
what religion does not eat any meat? buddhism
Which religion prohibits meat on special occasions catholiscism
Hinduists restrict… pork, beef, fowl
Islam do not eta.. pork
Orthodox jews do not eat pork fish without scales or fins, dairy with meat
Seventh day adventists do not eat pork, shellfish, dairy, meat broth, coffee, tea, alcohol
Which of the following is used to estimate the body's protein stores?a. estimate body frame sizeb. measure midarm circumferencec. calculate BMId. determine triceps skinfolds b
which of the following is used to assess food intake would yield the most comprehensive information?a. 24 hr recallb. diet hxc. food frequency questionnaired. food records b
Which about the use of the ADA exchange lists is true?a. 2 starch exchanges can be substituted for 2 meat exchangesb. exchange lists are used to calculate an RDAc. exchange is quantity of food on particular listd. calculating exchange w/ pen/paper c
Which is true of Chinese yin & yang health belief system?a. cold, or yin is balanced by hot or yangb. hot condition is flushed with lg quantities of cold h2oc. rice is considered magical & consumed @ qmeald. yang foods are only served hot a
Which of the following adheres to strict kosher regulations?a. avoiding cheese and cheese productb. eating only certain cuts of porkc. keeping separate utensils and dishes for meat and dailyd. serving lobster clams, and shrimp on festive occasions c
Mr. P recently widowed never grocery shopped/ cooked. Which system would offer best chance for wt loss?a. computerized diet analysis programb. myPyramidc. ADA exchanged. RDA/AI tables b
24 hr recall at health fair makes Ms. E think she should take supplements of vit & minerals. Nurse saysa. 1 day diet recall is inadeqaute to base supplementb. hand recalculation should be done to verifyc. RDAs are based on 50% ppl a
What are some labs to monitor? electrolytes, slbumin, total protein, Hgb, Hct, and serum osmolarity
What are some electrolytes to monitor? sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium
this is intended as a goal for daily intake by ind, not to assess adquacy of an ind. intake RDA
this is the average observed or expiermentally defined intake by a population that appears to sustain nutrition adequate intake
what is used when lacking sufficient information to set RDA? AI
this the view that one's own view is best? ethnocentrism
this is adopting another ones culture acculturation
which religious groups don't drink alcohol? muslim, 7th day adventism
which religious groups don't eat pork? hindu, muslim, orthodox jew, 7th day adventist
Which religious groups have ritualistic slaughtering? muslim, orthodox jew, meat and dairy meals
What is erikson's theory for young adultmiddle adultolder adult young adult: intimacy vs isolationmiddle adult: generativity vs stagnationolder adult: integrity vs despair
involves serving as a mentor to the next generation generativity
having no permanent teeth edentulous
major cause of tooth loss in the older adult is… peridontal dz
affects gums, gingiva, apparatus attaching the tooth to the jaw peridontal dz
decrease in production of saliva zerostomia
absense of hydrochloric acid in the stomach achloryhydria
SIADH is associated with inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)
What RDA's/AIs for vare increased for older adults?decreased? vitamin D and B6Vitamins E & K
Should we take calcium with or without food with food
inflammation of various joints often accompanied by pain, swelling, stiffness, and deformity arthritis
osteoarthitis is local or systemic? RA? localsystemic
RA standard therapy includes fish oil
What are some physiological factors contributing to anorexia of aging? changing taste and smelldelayed gastric emptyingaltered digestion-related hormone secretion and responsiveness
The RDA/AI for which of the following nutrients is increased for older adults compared to younger ones?a. Na+b. Ca+c. Vitamin Cd. Vitamin K b. calcium
the decrease in gastric acid that accompanies aging causes concern for the absorption of which of the following nutrients?a. CHO & H2Ob. Fat and cholesterolc. Vitamins A & Ed. Vitamin B12 & iron d. vitamin D12 and iron
a nurse visiting home screens for dehydration. Which would she assess?a. temp, urine-specific gravityb. tongue, pulse, muscle strengthc. skin turgor & heart and lug soundsd. I&O records b. tongue condition, pulse, muscle strength
Which of the following conditions is likely to contribute to Vit D defic in elderly?a. atrophied skin, dislike milk, indoor lifeb. lack exercise, failed hearing/visionc. slowed peristalsis, diminshed secretion of intrinsic factor a. atrophied skin, dislike milk, indoor life
old retired cook who tells clinic nurse she regrets not having had children. Which of the activities might assist her to gain generativity?a. edit cookbookb. take cooking classc. serve on meals-wheals boardd. teach a recipe at local school d.
76- yr old Fractured hip of school teacher… how to calcuate BMI?a. drivers licenceb. at age 50c. supine w/ tape easured. knee to toe calculation b
76- yr old Fractured hip of school teacher… lost 4 lb in 3 mo before surgery. Present wt is 125 lb. nurse should..a. ask dr for appetite stimulantb. balanced nutritional supplments tidc. defer action to team converence next wkd. feeding her b
76- yr old Fractured hip of school teacher… limited mobility so providing adquate fluid intake is needed to prevent complications in ____ systema. cardiob. endocrinec. GUd. integument c
What are some mild symptoms of gastric and intestinal distress? ab pain &V diarrhea cramps
What are some severe symptoms of GI distress? dehydrationbloody stoolneurological d/odeath
What ingredients lower pH so bacteria can't grow? vinegar and lemon juice
What temperature range will most bacteria multiply at? 40-140
What is the canning temp for low acid vegies, meat, poultry in pressure canner? 240-250
What is the canning temp for fruits, tomatoes, and pickles in waterbath canner? 212-240
What is the cooking temp to destroy bacteria. 165-212
Bacterial growth may occur at what temp? 125-140
What is the danger zone of temps? foods held more than 2 hours in this zones between 60-125 are subject to rapid growth of bacteria & toxins
how do freezing temps affect bacteria? they stop growth but allow bacteria to survive.
How long can raw meats be stored? poultry fish or ground meat in refrigerator? 5 days2 days
This is described as eating a food containing a large number of disease producing bacteria food infection
this is the most common foodborne illness salmonella infection or salmonellosis
this is transmitted by consumption of contaminated foods or contact with contaminated/infected person. salmonella infection
salmonella is found in what foods? raw eggs, milk, poultry, red meat, ground beef
HA, abdominal pain, diarrerhea, N&V, dehydration, feber, septicemia are all symptoms in salmonella
listeria is found in soft cheese, deli meat, burritos, ice cream
this may lead to miningoencephalitis or septicemia in newborns and adults and abortion in prego women. listeria
echoli is found in beef, raw milk, apple juice
may lead to hemorrhagic colitis (cramps, bloody diarrhea, N&V, fever) may result in hemolytic uremic failure or kidney failure Ecoli
campylobacter jejuni is found in poultry, beef, raw eggs, and water
this may lead to acute gastroenteritis of variable severity characterized by diarrhea, abdominal pain, malaise, feer, N&V. Campylobactor jejuni
What pathogen may lead to guillain-barre syndrome? campylobacter jejuni
norwalk virus this is in raw shellfish salds, dehydrated cereals, grains, legumes, nuts
this may lead to N&V, diarrhea, ab pain, HA, malaise, and low-grade fever norwalk virus
Staph aureus is found in poultry, processed meats, cheeses, ice cream, mixed dishes, potato salad, spaghetti
this may lead to ritter syndrome an inflammatory dz in newborns characterized by pustules filled with straw-colored fluid and become crusted. staph aureus
this is found in improperly canned food in large masses of food with air free center clostridum botulinum
this may lead to acute bilateral cranal nerve impairment, wekaness, paralysis, double vision, dysphasia, dry mouth, N&V, constipation. clostridum botulinum
this may be in food,water, human feces typhoid fever
may lead to fever up to 104 for 7 days following by flat rose-colored fleeting rash, abdominal pain, anorexia, extreme exhaustion, septicemia typhoid fever
this may be in emats gravies, stews in large masses of food clostridium perfringens
this may lead to abdominal cramps, D&V, fever clostridium perfringens
this is found int he intestinal tracts of cows, hogs, sheep and poultry campylobacter jejuni
food found to be contaminated with this include raw milk, mushrooms, and hamburger. campylobacter jejuni.
Campylobacter can be controlled by keeping foods below 40 or above 140
this type of bacteria can grow slowly at refrigerator temps listeria
pregnant women are 20 times more likely to get this than other adults listeriosis
this is the consumption of food in which bacteria have produced poisonous toxin food intoxification
how is staph infected by heat? it destroys bacteria but not toxins.
how do we prevent staph? good hygiene and foods below 40 and above 140
clostridum botulinum results in what dz botulism
this organism is found in soils and intestinal tracts of domestic animals clostridium botulinum
What organism is found in canned foods? clostridum botulinum
how to preven clostridum botulinum? boil canned foods 10 minutes before serving
this can withstand freezing and chlorine solutions but not high temps norwalk virus
What is bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE)? mad cow dz r/t infective prion a small protein that's resistant to most traditional methods and is found in brain, SC, retina, and dorsal root ganglia
This organism lives within, upon, or at the expense of a living host w/out providing benefit to the host parasite
this si a worm that becomes embedded in muscle tissue of pigs trichinella spiralis
This is when humans eat larvae or worm in pork trichinosis
tapeworms are found in undercooked.. beef portk, seafood
this is a parsite that is entrely dependent on nutrients inside host cell ofr metabolic/reproductive needs virus
this is found in contaminated faw sewage and shellfish harvested from fecally contaminated water and poluted water hep a
abrupt fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, abdominal discomfort and janudice are all signs of hepatitis A
these are the most widely encountered organism and spread by air, insect, rodents molds
molds that produce mycotoxins called alatoxins that may be in peanuts or corn or cottonseed meal aspergillus
what is the fxn of alkaline phoophatas mineralizes bone
rate and extent to which an active drug or nutreint or metabolite enters the general circulation,permitting access to teh site of action bioavailability
this is a substance added to food to increase its flavor, shelf life, characteristics such as texture, color, aroma additive
this describes the relationship between a food or food component and a dz or health related condiiton health claim
this describes the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient intended to affect the sturcutre or function in humans or characterizes the documented mechanism by which a nutrient or dietary ingredient acts to maintain such function structure/function claim
this means less than 0.5 grams fo fat per serving an da tiny insignificant amount of cholesterol, sodium, and sugar free
this indicates 3 grams of fat per serving also low in satuared fat, cholesterol and or kilocalires low
signifies less than 10 grams of fat 4 grams of saturated fat and 95 mg of cholesterol per serving lean
this means 5 grams of fat 2 grams fo saturated fat and 95 mg of cholesterol per serving extra lean
this denotes 1/3 fewer kcal or one half the fat of the original in no more than 1/2 the na+ of the higher na+ version light
this means the item has less than 2 mg of cholesterol and 2 grams or less of atruated fat per serving cholesterol free
food must contain 20% or more of the daily value for that nutrient. high
denotes that one serving of a food is considered to be a good source of the vitamin, a mineral, or fiber containing 10-19% of the daily value for that particular vitamin, mineral or fiber. good source of
limited number of nutrients modular supplement
used when the GI tract functional and the client needsall of the essential nutrients in a specified volume intact or polymeric formula
formulas are less palatable than _______ intact feedings
formulas in which nutrients are easier to digest elemental or predigested
nutrients that are not predigested intact nutrients
this is giving a 4 to 6 hr volume of feeding soln over 20-30 minutes intermittent feeding
4-6 hour volume of feeding solution within a few minutes bolus feeding
this feeding a client via a vein away from the center of the body in a line terminating in a peripheral site peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN)
fed via a central line TPN
this type of feeding does not contain kcal PPN
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