HIST 121- Chap. 1-5

HIST 121- Chap. 1-5

Question Answer
What did Christopher Columbus call the first island he set foot on? San Salvador
Who financed Columbus' trip to the New World? King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain
What drove Europeans to exploration? Faster way to get to India, China, and Asia
Who established a school to gain more knowledge and sailing? Prince Henry the Navigator
Who sailed around the southern tip of Africa? Marco Polo, Bartolome Dias
What did the Treaty of Tordesillas do? Pope divided up the world for exploration, Portugal- Brazil and Africa, Spain- New World
What was the most potent weapon the Europeans brought with them to the New World? Germs
What European beliefs and attitudes governed relations with Native Americans? Believed they were superior
What impact did disease have on Native American population? Killed 50% of the Indians
Would we consider this the same as genocide or a holocaust? Why or why not? No, because it was not intentional.
Who led the first British effort at exploration of the New World? Sir Humphrey Gilbert
When Sir Humphrey Gilbert's ship went down in a storm, who replaced him? Sir Walter Raleigh
What did Sir Walter Raleigh call the land he claimed in the New World? Virginia, Roanoke Island
What was the encomienda system? Get land with natives on it, Christianize and civilize them
Who was Bartolome de las Casas? Get Encomedia system abolished, wrote letter to Queen
What were some of the differences between the Indians and the colonists? Indians- multiple gods, grow crops, self-sufficient, non-aggressive, no weaponsColonists- One God, not used to making own food, not self-sufficient, advanced weapons
Who financed the founding of Jamestown? King James I
What problems confronted English settlements? Mosquitoes, too late to plant crops, no food
Who introduced tobacco to the colonies? John Rolfe
The people who wanted to purify the Anglican Church- the Church of England, came to be known as what? The Puritans
What is a pilgrim? Someone who leaves their country for a reason with no intention of going back
Who drew up the Mayflower Compact? Promise, good colony with good laws
Who did the Pilgrims elect as their governor? William Bradford
How were the Puritans different from the Pilgrims? Puritans= no religious tolerance, Pilgrims= religious tolerance
What was the Massachusetts Bay Company? For religious refugees, Puritans, built Boston
Who did the Puritans elect as their first government? John Winthrop
What colony did Roger Williams establish? Massachusetts- Salem
Which colony was established as a haven for Catholics? Maryland
What were the Toleration acts? Religious toleration for anyone who believed in Jesus
Who established the colony of Maryland? Lord Baltimore- George Calvert
Explain the headright system. After indentured servant a person got 50 acres of land, mark boundary, plant crops, build house, quitrent
What was a quitrent? Property tax and guaranteed income
What was the difference between a servant and an indentured servant? Indentured would eventually get freedom
What is the Spanish word for black? Negro
What led to the adoption of slavery in the American colonies? The decline of indentured servants
What was the South Carolina Negro Act? Denied slaves freedom of movement, assembly, grow food, earn money, learn to read and would be punished severely
What did Puritans bring with them? A plan- were prepared to stay.
What was the first order of business for the Puritans? Set up a covenant
What did the Puritans consider the work of the devil? Idleness
What was the Half-Way covenant? Been going to church faithfully- immediate member but no voting or Eucharist
Why were Quakers executed? Because they didn't practice the no separation of church and state
Which two communities were established in the Carolinas? Charleston and Albermale
Which colony did the English receive from the Dutch? New Amsterdam (New York)
Who established the colony of Pennsylvania? William Penn
What was the "holy experiment" Tried to protect Indians, open to anyone who believed in God
What was Spanish colonial life based on? Missions- civilize and Christianize
Who organized the Pueblo Indians? Pope
Who lived in Florida? Spanish
What contributed highly to the high death rate in the Chesapeake Bay area? Climate- humid, James River would back up
What issues led to Bacon's Rebellion? Harassed Indians and Indians retaliated, Berkeley wouldn't fight against them
Who was the royal governor of Virginia in the mid-1600s? Berkeley
What was the most common way of getting additional land on the western edges of the settlements? Killing Indians and kicking them off
Who organized planters against the Indians? Nathaniel Bacon
What was the only city in the South? Charleston
What was the final English colony? Georgia
Why did the English government approve of the Georgia colony? Buffer between Carolinas and Florida
Who founded Georgia? James Oglethorpe
What did the southern colonies NOT have that the New England colonies did have? Rice and wheat, more disease
What was the Dominion of New England? 1684- North of Pennsylvania, governed by Edmund Andros, abolished popular assemblies, enforced religious toleration
Who was supposed to govern the Dominion of New England? Edmund Andros
What prompted the Salem Witch trials? Samuel Paris got fired so daughter, niece, and slave girl pretended to be possessed so people tried to find a witch to blame.
What were the colonial legislatures? Upper house (appointed by kings) and lower house (house of Burgesses/Assemblies)
What was the Privy Council? In England, ran government affairs and Supreme Court
What was the Board of Trade? 1696- every colony sent someone to represent the colonies
Why did colonies exist? For money and resources
What was mercantilism? Spend less than you make.
What were the Navigation acts? All goods on English ships, 3/4th crew British, kept out foreign ships
What was the Albany Plan? Ben Franklin, discussed common issues (Indians and the Frontiers)
What were the points that most Enlightenment philosophers agreed on? Need for balance of power, limit of monarchy power, freedom of conscience for all Christians, everyone was equal
Who was against mercantilism? Adam Smith
What key Enlightenment word was a natural gift when one was born? Liberty
What key Enlightenment word was a birthright of all humans? Happiness
Who sent George Washington to meet with the French? What message did George Washington bring to the French? What was the French reply? Governor Dinwiddie, you are on VA territory, we were here first
What were the results of the Treaty of Paris? France lost America, America in Mississippi, Spain lost Florida, but got west of Mississippi
Why did England's victory in the French and Indian War result in the loss of the American colonies? Didn't have money more.
How did England's war affect North America? Taxes
What was the Proclamation of 1763? Organized British territory
What was the Sugar Act? End sugar smuggling, taxation without representation
What was the Quartering act? Must house and feed soldiers
What was the Declaratory act? Colonies were subordinate, could tax anything at anytime
What differences did the British and the American colonists have in terms of what a Constitution was? British- laws, customs, traditions, institutionsAmericans- written
Why did the colonists regard England's attempt to gain greater control over her colonies as an encroachment on their rights? They didn't have representation
What were the Townshend Duties 1767- tax on imports, colonists boycotted
What was the Stamp Act Congress? 9 colonies
What was the Boston Massacre? Made British rescinded all but tea tax
Who defended the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre? John Adams
How did the British respond to the Boston Tea Party? Responded with coercive acts, closed Boston Harbors until paid for tea, moved courts out of MA, all government positions became appointed, took away the right to vote
When and where was the First Continental Congress held? What were the results? Who did not send a delegate? In Philadelphia in September of 1774, Declaration of Grievances and Resolves, boycott British goods, stop exports, agreed to take up arms if needed
Why did General Gage decide to go to Concord, Massachusetts? Marched to Concord (Paul Revere)
Where were the first shots of the American Revolution fired? in Lexington
When and where did the Second Continental Congress meet? What were the results? Philadelphia in May 10, 1775, sent king an olive branch
Who was the president of the 2nd Continental Congress? John Hancock
Who was appointed commander-in-chief (CINC) of the Continental Army? George Washington
What olive branch did the colonists send to the King? What was the King's response? A letter but the king refused
What was the first major battle of the Revolution? Battle of Bunker Hill
Who replaced General Gage? General Howe
Who came to help the British fight in America? French
Who wrote Common Sense? What did this pamphlet call for? Thomas Paine, end monarch, complete independence, American ports open, pirates on British, formed governments
What did Richard Henry Lee introduce to the Continental Congress? Declared independence from British
What were the two parts of the Declaration of Independence? 1. Why people can rebel/revolt2. Grievances against King George
How did the Declaration of Independence justify America's independence from England? Part one- why people can rebel/revolt
What advantages did the Americans have and what advantages did the British have in the War for Independence? Americans- Homeland advantageBritish- number, experience, training, government, materials, industry
Who were the tories? Loyal to British crowns
What was the first battle George Washington led his soldiers into? Trenton
Where did the colonists move the capital after Philadelphia was lost? York, PA
What caused the French to decide to help the Americans? Hated British
What caused the 13 colonies and France able to sign a treaty? Hated British
Who is considered the father of the American Navy? John Paul Jones
How did John Paul Jones bring the war to England? attacked British ships off coast
Who replaced General Howe? General Cornwallis
Who was in charge of British troops in the South? General Cornwallis
Who was the "swamp fox"? Francis Marion
Where did General Cornwallis set up his base? Yorktown
What were the terms of the peace treaty? 1. US free country2. Boundaries- Great lakes, Mississippi, Northern Florida3. Spain got Florida4. British would remove troops5. Make resolution to Tories' families6. Americans gained experience

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