Foods Test#3 Eggs, meat, poultry, fish

Foods Test#3 Eggs, meat, poultry, fish

Question Answer
What are the 4 criteria to grade eggs? -Thickness of white-Condition of Shell-Position of yolk-Size of air cell
What are 4 ways egg foams can be stabilized? Acid (cream of tartar), sugar, gums/proteins, heat
The membrane that encloses the yolk of an egg is called… Vitelline membrane
Differences between soft and hard meringues -Amount of sugar added (Hard meringue has twice the amount)-Oven temp (Hard are in less heat but for longer time)-Beating of egg foam (Hard is beat to stiff peaks while soft is beat to softer peaks)
What are 2 types of cattle that can provide a "prime" piece of meat? Heifers and steers
A functional unit in a muscle cell that extends from Z line to Z line is called a… Sarcomere
What is meat mandatory inspected for? Wholesomeness
What are the factors in judging palatability grades in red meat? -Age and maturity-Fat ratio (quality of lean and fat meat, aka marbling)-Finish (red color, silky texture, etc.-Conformation (size of carcass, stalky and muscular?)
What are the carcass area of the beed that can yield prime retail cuts? Chuck, rib, loin and round
Meats should be cooked to an internal temperature of… 160 degrees
What is the agency responsible for overseeing meat and poultry? USDA
What is the agency responsible for overseeing fish and shellfish? Department of commerce (specifically: National Marine Fisheries Service)
What is restructured poultry? Flesh that is put back together after mechanical deboning
What is the best way to re-heat cooked poultry? Microwave, to prevent lipid oxidation causing a rancid flavor when heating too slowly
What are the 2 classifications of fish? Finfish and shellfish (aka vertebrate and invertebrate)
What internal temperature should poultry be cooked to? 165 F
What are 3 ways fin fish may be classified? Lean vs. fat, round vs. flat, salt vs. fresh water
Name 2 reasons fish can be cooked to a lower internal temperature Microorganisms are cold-blooded, muscle structure has less collagen
Name the form of fish purchased that has its entrails removed drawn
What type of shellfish are crustaceans? Lobster, shrimp, crab
What classifications fall under mollusks? Bivalve, univalve, cephalopods
Describe the shell of the egg -Made up of calcium carbonate in protein matrix that is brittle and rigid-Thousands of invisible pores allows carbon dioxide and moisture to escape and oxygen to enter
What in on the outside of the eggs shell before it's washed? Cuticle or bloom – protective coating, blocks pores, prevents moisture loss
What does a smaller air cell mean? A fresher egg
Composition of egg white 4 distinct layers of albumen: Outer fluid (thin), viscous albumin (thick), inner fluid layer (thin), chalazae (thick strings that anchor the yolk)-White is 3/5 of the egg
Composition of yolk -Yellow yolk contains most nutrients-White yolk in the center of the yolk-has most of the fat and more protein than the white
Nutrients in Eggs Good sources of: protein, fat, vitamins A and D, riboflavin.Poor sources of: Niacin, has no vitamin C
Candling Assessing quality without removing the shell. Fresh: yolk as seen as slight shadow, cloudy white. Older egg: yolk moves freely, clearer white
Size of eggs Size judged by white. increases by 3 oz. Extra large eggs are 27 oz
Egg grades AA, A, B, C
Effects of storage on eggs Decrease moisture,Decreased Carbon dioxide,Increased pH,Yolk flattens are vitalline membrane stretches
Ideal storage of eggs 40 degrees, 60% humidity, broad end up, covered, keep towards back of fridge
Eggs as Emulsifying agent Lecithin in yolk is a natural emulsifying agent, keeps fat and liquids from seperating
Eggs as a binder Helps as an adhesive
Eggs as foams Air incorporated into liquid protein, air bubbles surrounded by albumen that undergoes some denaturation due to whipping
Soft egg foam peaks bend slightly, tilt the bowl and it still moves, loses volume rapidly, proteins not sufficiently coagulated
Dry egg foam Over-beaten, decrease in volume, elasticity, surface is dry, proteins are over coagulated
What decreases egg stability? Fluid (increases volume and leakage),Fats (decreases foaming power, more leakage),Salt (decreases stability, rarely added)
Beef: Cows vs. Heifer vs. Steer -Cow – has given birth, used for dairy-Heifer – virgin females-Steers – castrated young male
Lamb breeds -Rams – uncastrated males-Ewes – Females-Wethers – castrated male
Muscle Cell Terminology -Fiber – single muscle cell-Sarcoplasm – cytoplasm (fluid) of muscle cells-Sarcolema – cell membrane of the muscle cells
Striated Muscle the bands that you see in muscle in a contracted
Rigor Mortis All contracts, cooked is very tough, aging makes it softer and more relaxed
Connective tissue in meat -Acts as glue-Holds muscle fibers in one spot-Collagen is most abundant protein, it is tough and fibrous bt when heated it converts to be more gel like
Marbling -Fat found within muscle, actually flaked within the meat.-Depends on genetics, agte, diet, exercise, cut of meat-Diet with more calories will have more marbling-More tender, flavorful, calories, and money
Myoglobin Stores oxygen in muscle, higher concentration of myoglobin creates more read pigment
Palatability Grades a) Prime (heifers and steers)b) Choice (heifers, steers, cows)c) Select (less fat)d) Standard (young animals)e) Commercial (old animalsf) utilityg) Cutter (lunch meats)
Cuts of Meat -Wholesale or primal: How carcass is divided-Retail: wholesale cuts then divided for consumer sales
Processed Meats -Curing: salt, nitrates, sugar and seasoning-Smoking: cured then smoked-Canned: processed by hight heat-Drying: dehydrating like beef jerky
Dark meat Anything that flies is all dark meat
Mechanically Deboning Poultry Entire carcass crushed, bone fragments removed by sieve, more flesh recovered. However, more fat and causes darker color
Reconstructing mixing meat with brine and gums, creates a gel-like texture
Fish and muscle fibers -Fish have shorter muscle fibers arranged in myosin-Run parallel to the back bone-layers of short fibers are separated by thin sheets called myocommata-Fine myocommata lead to fine textured fish
Muscle color in fish Red muscle: Near fins and tail, for swimming and endurance (slow twitch fibers)White muscle: For quick bursts of speed but not much for swimming (more commonly what we eat)
Judging fish freshness -No odor-eyes should be full, bright, and bulging-gills: bright pink-flesh: springs back when you poke it

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *