Cooking Meat Basics

Cooking Meat Basics

Question Answer
How much of a percentage is water in meat? 75%
How much of a percentage is protein in muscle? 20%
How much of a percentage is fat in muscle? 5%
Shrinkage: occurs when the meat loses water as it cooks
Marbling: is the fat within the muscle tissue (more marbling=tender)
Fat Cap: fat that surrounds muscle tissue
Barding: wrap lean meat with fat such as bacon
Larding: long thin strips of fat or vegetable is inserted into the center of lean meat
Muscle fibers: determine meat's texture and contribute to flavor (you want small fibers)
Connective tissue: muscle fibers bound together by connective tissue. tissue tends to be tough
Collagen: soft, white tissue that breaks down into gelatin and water
Elastin: hard, yellow tissue that doesn't break down during cooking (gristle)
Bones: make up the skeleton of animals. white bone=older animal. young animal=redder bone.
Primal Cuts: sometimes called wholesale cuts, are large cuts separated from animals. foodservice operations buy these.
Fabricated Cuts: smaller portions taken from primal cuts. menu-sized portions
Meat Inspection: Federal Government. 1906 law requires inspection of meat crossing state lines (USDA stamp is required)
Quality Grades: reveals meat's tenderness, juiciness and flavor
Yield Grades: measures the amount of usable meat on beef and lamb. grade 1=best grade 5=lowest (large amount of fat)
Fresh meat: stored in refrigerator 41*F or lower.
Frozen meat: 0*F or lower. Wrap to prevent freezerburn.
What is the primal cut and the fabricated cut of the arm bone? chuck, chuck eye roll steak, top blade steak
What is the primal cut and the fabricated cut of the leg or round bone? top or bottom round, rump, round steak
What is the primal cut and the fabricated cut of the back bone or T-bone? loin, t-bone steak, strip loin steak, tenderloin
What is the primal cut and the fabricated cut of the wedge bone? loin, near round, bottom sirloin, tip steak
What is the primal cut and the fabricated cut of the flat bone? loin, center cuts, sirloin steak
What is the primal cut and the fabricated cut of the pin bone? loin, sirloin steak
What is the primal cut and the fabricated cut of the blade bone (neck area)? chuck, top blade steak
What is the primal cut and the fabricated cut of the blade bone (center cut)? rib, rib eye steak
What is the primal cut and the fabricated cut of the blade bone (rib area?) rib, rib steak
What is the primal cut and the fabricated cut of the back and rib bone? rib loin, back ribs
What is the primal cut and the fabricated cut of the breast and rib bones? brisket, plate, flank, short ribs

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