Chemistry Unit 3

Chemistry Unit 3

Question Answer
Atoms of same element with same # of protons and electrons but different neutrons and mass #s. isotope
write the symbol for an isotope of Gold-200 200Au79
Write the symbol for an isotope of Iodine 128 128 I53
How do you identify the element: mass #, protons, neutrons, or electrons? Protons (atomic#)
Nuclear chemistry is focused on what part of the atom? nucleus(protons and neutrons)
4 types of radioactive decay Alpha, Beta, Positron, Gamma
type of radioactive decay with 2 protons and 2 neutrons alpha
type of radioactive decay that produces a negative particle (electron) and neutron changes to proton; produces a positive particle beta
type of radioactive decay where the proton changes to neutron positron
type of radioactive decay thats energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation gamma
what does transmutation mean? when and element's # of protons change and causes the element's identity to change
radioactive changes differ from ordinary chemical changes because radioactive changes involve the_____. nucleus
What protons to neutron ratio do small atoms and large atoms need to be stable? small- 1:1 large- 1:2
what type of force holds a nucleus together? what is the opposing repulsive force? strong nuclear force; electrostatic force
symbol for alpha 4He2
symbol for beta 0e-1
symbol for positron 0e1
symbol for gamma 0y0
what is needed to protect from alpha? paper
what is needed to protect from beta? aluminum
what is needed to protect from gamma? thick concrete or lead
what is a half life? time it takes for half of the original sample to decay
when a larger mass atom splits into two or more smaller atoms with smaller mass. this can happen naturally or it can be started in a nuclear reactor fission
when two smaller atoms join together to make one atom with a larger mass fusion
the energy of the sun is thought to be produced by the ____ of hydrogen atoms into helium atoms fusion(occurs naturally on the sun but we can't successfully create fusion)
when a nucleus decays, some of the mass changes into what? energy
what is the equation that shows what happens according to your answer in the question above? E=mc squared
what happens when a radioactive nucleus decays? it changes into another element
Nuclear (radiation) reactions keep happening; it cannot be stopped until they naturally become____? stable with the correct ration of protons to neutrons
what are the concerns with nuclear waste? storage, long half-lives, radioactive
what are some uses or radiation/nuclear energy? agriculture, weapons, medical, power plant reactors, space exploration, radiometric dating, and other industries
what is thermal pollution? when heated water is put back into the environment, it depletes the oxygen and kills the fish
how does the nuclear reactor in the power plant work? uranium releases energy to heat water to boiling. this creates steam which turns a turbine. the turbine spins to activate the generator which produces the elecricity
where does fusion happen naturally? sun and stars
what caused the Fukushimi Nuclear disaster? earthquake that caused a tsunami
why is food irradiated? are they radioactive when we eat them? to kill bacteria in the food; NO
lis the nuclear uses in medicine nuclear medicine, x-rays, radiation cancer treatment
in industry, nuclear science is used to coat materials to test for leaks
What is the original nuclear weapon: atomic or hydrogen bomb? Which use fission and or fusion? atomic. fission
radioactive carbon dating uses which radioisotope of carbon? What do we use radiocarbon dating for? Carbon-14; things that were once living

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